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October 2023

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Age Of The Universe

Given the many misconceptions about age of our species, the age of our planet Earth and the age of our universe, I felt that it was important to study the data about the time and forces that created our present day environment. I attempted to do this by graphically representing time flow from the present to the ancient past. My initial interest began in becoming curious about the earth’s changing climate and extinction events. A college course in historical geology helped. Once I started this endeavor, I got carried away and did research all the way back to the “big bang”.

A sense of proportion is critical. If you look at the first graphic for the Cenozoic period you see a narrow green band. It is probably twice as thick as it should be, but if I represent the Cenozoic in its actual size it would barely be visible. What is astounding to me, this narrow band represents the entire time that humanity has existed in it’s present form.

Selected Q&A Stack Overflow

As you work through your programming task, check out Stack Overflow. The following are real technical questions from actual programmers resolving technical problems. Although not comprehensive, these options offer valuable perspectives on the wide range of expertise at hand. Also, be aware that as time passes, these questions will be placed by more recent questions and answers.

The latest



Experimental Gallery

¡Español Mucho Practicar! (Practice Spanish a Lot!)

On-line: Where to go:

There are many on-line programs out there, and most are pretty good. For me the following is working best at this time:

I tooks Spanish classes for several years, and it was a great investment and at least got me to a level whereby I could be effective with the on-line classes The next critical step is a lot of practice. These links have been useful to keep me going to keep learning. .

Learning Spanish: DouLingo.com (is the best for me. There is a free version, but the paid version is inexpensive and MUCH BETTER!)

Quick lookups, English to Spanish, Spanish to English (and other languages): Google Translate

Refining your Spanish, Especially VERB CONJUGATION: SpanishDict.com.

If you are wanting to learn Spanish, just jump in and learn. There are wonderful people “south of the border” and around the world. Get to know them!

Full Stack Developers

As a full stack developers, we quite often are starved for peer feedback, and are constantly looking up methods, options and ways to make our internet applications faster, more reliable and supportable. Yes, supportable! Hopefully we can comunicate and help feel that need

For those of aspiring to be “full stack” developers, here is a partial list of requirements

At a minimum if we consider ourselves into “full stack” we must know something and be proficient with the LAMP stack. LAMP, refers to linux, Apache, Mysql, and PHP. This term only refers to the server side of things. There are still additional items to consider such as network implementations, HTML, Javascript. Along with that there are many frameworks to suppor the end user experience. Additionally the server side languages have frameworks as well, shown below`. To create full stack web applications it is critical to be conversant in at least one framework on the client side and one on the server side. 

Finally the understanding the architecture known as mode, view, controller is critical in building well rounded and supportable full stack web applications. 

Some of the important areas to learn are:

  • The OS targeted for your app, usually Linux or Windows
  • The most important web servers, most likely
    • Apache
    • Ngnix
    • Microsoft IIS
    • And others as listed on Slashdot.org
  • Databases, and knowledge of database design and SQL is mandatory
    • mysql
    • mariadb
    • sqlserver
    • Sqlite
  • Server side languages, such as
    • PHP
    • C#
    • Python
  • Client side languages and scripting:
    • HTML
    • Javascript
      • Frameworks
      • such as jQuery, Angular, React, VUE.js, and Node.js just to mention a few
  • Testing methodologies
  • Systematic configuration and a process to keep a code repository current.
  • The bias for this author is GIT and GitHub others might include

See the right side bar for partial list of reference links to the above areas.

Finally, it take above all things, understand the requirements, extensive testing by the deveoper, keep your code repo current and most of all determination!

Happy developing!

How to Choose the Perfect AI Model for Your Needs

Are you looking for ways to improve your business or to gain new insights? Then you need to be sure to consider using AI models. AI models can help you to improve your operations and make better decisions. But which AI model is right for you? In this article, we will outline the different types of AI models and the benefits and drawbacks of each. We will also outline how to choose the right one for your specific needs. So be sure to read on to learn more about this powerful tool!

What are the different types of AI models?

There are a variety of different types of AI models, each suited for solving certain types of problems.

Some of the most common types of AI models include supervised learning algorithms, reinforcement learning algorithms, and unsupervised learning algorithms.

Each type of AI model has its own benefits and drawbacks, as well as specific uses within different industries.

It is important to decide on the right type of AI model for the task at hand, based on the specific needs of your business or industry.

What are the benefits and drawbacks of each type of AI model?

There are a variety of different types of AI models out there, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Before making a decision about which model to use, it’s important to understand both the benefits and drawbacks of each type.

The three main types of AI models are supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning.

Supervised learning is best for tasks that need a certain level of accuracy, such as classification or prediction. Unsupervised learning is good for tasks that don’t have a specific goal or target, such as natural language processing or image recognition. Reinforcement learning is perfect for tasks that don’t have any pre-determined objectives, like playing video games or adapting to changing conditions.

Each type of AI model has different strengths and weaknesses. Supervised learning is better at accuracy than unsupervised learning, but less accurate than reinforcement learning. Reinforcement learning is better at adapting to changing conditions than either supervised or unsupervised learning, but is less accurate than both.

How do you choose the right AI model for your specific needs?

There are a variety of different types of AI models available on the market, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks.

To pick the right AI model for your specific needs, you need to first identify what you want it to do. Then, you need to evaluate the different types of AI models and decide which one is best suited for your specific needs. Finally, you need to choose the model based on the criteria outlined in this article.

One major consideration when selecting an AI model is the type of data it’s capable of handling. Deep learning models are great for recognizing patterns in large data sets, while rule-based models are more suited for tasks like decision making or natural language processing. There are also hybrid models that incorporate elements of both deep learning and rule-based systems.

Another important factor to consider is the AI’s flexibility. Some AI models are designed specifically for machine learning algorithms, while others can handle a wider range of tasks. And finally, make sure to check the model’s performance before making a purchase. There are a number of online tools that allow you to measure how well a particular AI model performs in various scenarios.

The article offers helpful advice on how to choose the perfect AI model for your needs, based on your specific business and industry requirements. It outlines the different types of AI models and their respective benefits and drawbacks, and provides tips on how to choose the best one for your specific needs. This information will help you make informed decisions when selecting an AI model, so that you can achieve the most optimal results for your organization.

As of May 27, 2023, the following are available from as OpenAI API model options. The following data is directly out of OpenAI’s Model Overview. Please refer to the OpenAi Continuous Upgrade page for a more complete summary:

The OpenAI API is powered by a diverse set of models with different capabilities and price points. You can also make limited customizations to our original base models for your specific use case with fine-tuning.

GPT-4 Limited betaA set of models that improve on GPT-3.5 and can understand as well as generate natural language or code
GPT-3.5A set of models that improve on GPT-3 and can understand as well as generate natural language or code
DALL·EBetaA model that can generate and edit images given a natural language prompt
WhisperBetaA model that can convert audio into text
EmbeddingsA set of models that can convert text into a numerical form
ModerationA fine-tuned model that can detect whether text may be sensitive or unsafe
GPT-3A set of models that can understand and generate natural language
CodexDeprecatedA set of models that can understand and generate code, including translating natural language to code

We have also published open source models including Point-E, Whisper, Jukebox, and CLIP.

Visit our model index for researchers to learn more about which models have been featured in our research papers and the differences between model series like InstructGPT and GPT-3.5.

Continuous model upgrades

With the release of gpt-3.5-turbo, some of our models are now being continually updated. We also offer static model versions that developers can continue using for at least three months after an updated model has been introduced. With the new cadence of model updates, we are also giving people the ability to contribute evals to help us improve the model for different use cases. If you are interested, check out the OpenAI Evals repository.

The following models are the temporary snapshots, we will announce their deprecation dates once updated versions are available. If you want to use the latest model version, use the standard model names like gpt-4 or gpt-3.5-turbo.

Model nameDeprecation date

Most usable options are available as GPT-3 derivatives. Much anticipate are the next generation of derivatives coming from version GPT-4.

For more detail on the usable version of GPT-3 which are current candidates for implementation, here are the following:


GPT-3 models can understand and generate natural language. These models were superceded by the more powerful GPT-3.5 generation models. However, the original GPT-3 base models (davinci, curie, ada, and babbage) are current the only models that are available to fine-tune.

Latest modelDescriptionMax tokensTraining data
text-curie-001Very capable, faster and lower cost than Davinci.2,049 tokensUp to Oct 2019
text-babbage-001Capable of straightforward tasks, very fast, and lower cost.2,049 tokensUp to Oct 2019
text-ada-001Capable of very simple tasks, usually the fastest model in the GPT-3 series, and lowest cost.2,049 tokensUp to Oct 2019
davinciMost capable GPT-3 model. Can do any task the other models can do, often with higher quality.2,049 tokensUp to Oct 2019
curieVery capable, but faster and lower cost than Davinci.2,049 tokensUp to Oct 2019
babbageCapable of straightforward tasks, very fast, and lower cost.2,049 tokensUp to Oct 2019
adaCapable of very simple tasks, usually the fastest model in the GPT-3 series, and lowest cost.2,049 tokensUp to Oct 2019
Current options

Ottoman Empire Reload

The Ottoman Empire, was a caliphate and one of the most powerful and long-lasting empires in history, spanned over six centuries from its establishment in the 13th century to its dissolution in the early 20th century. Here is a brief history of the Ottoman Empire:

Founding Period (1299-1453):
The empire’s origins can be traced back to 1299 when Osman I, a Turkish tribal leader, founded a small state in Anatolia, modern-day Turkey. Under the leadership of Osman who became calif and his successors, the state steadily expanded its territory through military conquests. Osman’s son, Orhan, captured the city of Bursa and made it the capital of the emerging Ottoman state.

Expansion and Rise (1453-1566):
The capture of Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, in 1453 by Sultan Mehmed II marked a significant turning point for the Ottomans. The fall of Constantinople not only symbolized the end of the Byzantine Empire but also gave the Ottomans control over a key strategic location. They renamed the city Istanbul and made it the new capital of their empire. Mehmed II also expanded Ottoman rule into the Balkans and Greece, consolidating their dominance in the region.

The Empire reached its zenith during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566). Suleiman expanded Ottoman territories to its greatest extent, capturing Belgrade, Rhodes, and parts of Hungary, and launching successful campaigns in North Africa and the Middle East. Under his rule, the empire became a major global power, boasting a strong military, stable governance, and a flourishing culture.

Stagnation and Decline (1566-1699):
Following Suleiman’s death, the empire entered a period of stagnation and gradual decline. The Ottomans faced internal problems, including struggles over succession and increasing corruption within the bureaucracy. Moreover, European powers such as Austria, Poland, and Russia challenged Ottoman control, leading to a series of costly wars that drained the empire’s resources.

This era also witnessed a growing disintegration of Ottoman influence in the Mediterranean, with the loss of Cyprus to the Venetians in 1571 and the naval defeat at the Battle of Lepanto in the same year. The Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 marked a significant turning point as it forced the Ottomans to cede territories in Europe and recognized the territorial gains of their European rivals.

Reform and Modernization (1699-1839):
In the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire embarked on a period of reform known as the Tanzimat. Recognizing the need to modernize their institutions, the sultans implemented a series of reforms aimed at centralizing power, improving the legal system, and promoting economic development. The Tanzimat reforms also granted greater rights to non-Muslim subjects within the empire.

However, despite these efforts, the empire continued to face challenges. Nationalist movements emerged among different ethnic and religious groups, seeking independence or autonomy. Greece gained independence in 1830, followed by several Balkan states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Decline and Dissolution (1839-1922):
The 19th century witnessed a further decline of the Ottoman Empire. The empire struggled to adapt to the rapid changes occurring in Europe, including industrialization and nationalism. The rise of nationalist movements, such as the Young Turks, highlighted the discontent within the empire and called for constitutional reforms.

The empire’s involvement in World War I proved disastrous. The Ottomans aligned with the Central Powers and suffered major military defeats. The empire’s territories were partitioned among the victorious Allied powers, leading to the Turkish War of Independence in 1919 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

The Turkish War of Independence resulted in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, marking the end of the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the first president of Turkey, initiated a series of reforms to modernize the country and separate religion from politics.

The Ottoman Empire left a significant impact on world history, particularly in terms of its military prowess, cultural achievements, and political legacy. It was a bridge between Eastern and Western civilizations, leaving a lasting influence on the regions it once controlled.

Geologic Time Explained

How the Ottomans Changed the World

The Ottoman Empire was a massive and complex empire that played a leading role in shaping the modern world. Much of its influence can still be seen in the modern world, particularly in its influence on both Islamic and European culture.

The Ottoman Empire: A History

The Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful empires in world history. The empire dominated the world for centuries, playing a leading role in shaping the modern world. The Ottomans were also great sailors and merchants, establishing colonies all over the world. Their influence is still seen in modern times, as can be seen in their influence on both Islamic and European culture.

The Ottoman Navy

The Ottoman Navy was one of the most powerful navies in the world. They were known for their innovation and achievements, having played a major role in expanding the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Navy was a major factor in the Battle of Lepanto.

The Ottoman Empire and the World

The Ottoman Empire dominated the world for centuries, playing a leading role in shaping the modern world. The empire was characterized by its impressive military might and its pervasive influence in politics and culture. It also established colonies all over the world, which left a significant impact on both Islamic and European culture. Perhaps most importantly, the Ottomans were great sailors and merchants, establishing colonies all over the world. Their influence is still seen in modern times, as can be seen in their influence on both Islamic and European culture.

The Ottoman Empire and Islam

The Ottoman Empire played a massive role in shaping Islamic culture. Their influence can be seen in everything from Islamic theology to Islamic law to Islamic art and architecture. The Ottomans were also responsible for spreading Islam throughout the world, making them one of the most influential empires in history.

The Ottoman Empire and the West

For centuries, the Ottoman Empire dominated the world. This massive and complex empire was characterized by its impressive military might and its pervasive influence in politics and culture. The Ottomans were also great sailors and merchants, establishing colonies all over the world. Their influence is still seen in modern times, as can be seen in their impact on both Islamic and European culture.

The Influence of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire profoundly shaped the world we live in today. From their mastery of sea power to their influence in Islamic culture, the Ottomans had a lasting and significant impact on the world around them. In addition to their political and cultural importance, the Ottomans were also major participants in international affairs and had a significant impact on the course of world history.

The Ottoman Empire was a powerful and influential force in world history. Its achievements in fields such as naval technology, politics, and culture have had a lasting impact on the world today.

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